Posts tagged pedalling
If you can make it through this post without confusion, you’ll be considered an educated PRO! The middle pedal has actually 5…count ’em FIVE usages that i’ve seen… so here goes… follow if you can… starting from the authentic usage…
1. If the right pedal is known as the sustain pedal and sustains the notes, the middle pedal – known as the sostenuto, also ‘sostenuto’s the notes. Y’see, the word sostenuto in Italian actually means ‘sustain’. So there are two sustain pedals on a piano? Well… yes and no. The right sustain pedal lifts all of the dampers on the piano. The middle pedal is actually what one might call a ‘selective’ sustain. Sustain happens only to the notes that are depressed on the keyboard. The two pedals are quite different in how they operate. While the damper/sustain pedal is connected to a long rail that has physical contact with the dampers, the sostenuto pedal only enables a ‘trip switch’ to hold the dampers up that were once depressed. The technique required then is to depress a the key – then hit the switch (sostenuto pedal) and the pedal will sustain only the notes related to the keys depressed. Sostenuto is ONLY an on/off control. Unlike the sustain where you can achieve many shades or levels of the damping, the sostenuto either holds the notes or it doesn’t. There is no middle ground.
2. Ok to make yet MORE confusion… MOST upright pianos have opted out for a simpler ‘bass damper’ approach. Rather than the ‘selective sustain’, the bass damper simply lifts the entire bass section. Why? Because sostenuto playing USUALLY involves just damping the bass – holding those notes and changing the top keys in some way.
3. If your piano comes from anywhere in Asia, the middle pedal has NOTHING to do with sostenuto or bass damper AT ALL! It is called a ‘practice mute’ pedal. Due to the fact that in Asia, MANY of the homes are either in close quarters or in apartments, the sostenuto was done away with and this mute was installed. It simply cuts the volume by 30-40%
4. Digital ‘silent’ option. Some of the newer and, i might add more expensive pianos have a digital mechanism installed that blocks the hammers all together and replaces that with a digital piano! Yep, you can plug in your headphones and play without making a sound. Only problem is… this option costs usually another $5000-10,000! Ouch.
5. This quite possibly is one ‘feature’ that time and again makes me laugh. Because many people NEVER look inside their piano, the middle pedal is sometimes connected to NUTTIN’!! HAHAA true story. I’ve opened up many a piano and there’s a pedal there… and there’s absolutely NO connection to any other part of the piano. It’s purely cosmetic! Well that just simply makes me laugh out loud. But i must say, on the check list of pianos when people are shopping i quite often hear the words “oh good…3 pedals”.
So there you have it… the list of 5 usages for the middle pedal – from sostenuto to stylizer.
So we looked at the most important pedal, sustain in Just Pedalling Part 1. In this post we’ll look at the remaining 2 pedals. The left pedal correctly named the “Una Corda” pedal is an Italian term with a translation that simply means ‘one string’. On every piano, 6 out of the 7 octaves of notes have more than one string. This means then that one hammer is either striking 3 strings simultaneously or 2 strings (depending on how low). The very bottom notes only have one string. If you depress the left pedal on a grand, watch the keys because the ENTIRE keyboard shifts about an 1/8 of an inch to the right. Physically what is happening is that the hammers are shifted out of alignment so that they are no longer hitting 3 strings but rather two (one string is left off – thus una corda). And so the piano becomes quieter because it is not hitting all 3 strings. But something else is happening. Piano hammers get grooves in them because they strike the same position all the time. When you depress the U.C. (una corda) (funny… my teacher used to simply write U.C. in my music… apparently we were supposed to know what that was about…lol) the piano also takes on a different sound due to the fact that the alignment of the grooves in the hammers are also out of sync. This strike of the hammer is now on ‘fresh’ ungrooved felt and makes the piano not only quieter, but mellower. (is mellower even a word?) So that is the CORRECT way U.C. is to work. On uprights, the keyboard cannot move and so it operates COMPLETELY different. Due to the fact that there is no side to side movement, how does one make the piano quieter? Simply by installing a governor – which is a ceiling or a cap on the volume. If you try and clap your hands but only allow your hand to go only 5″ apart, how loud can you clap? Not that loud because distance creates velocity and velocity, volume. In the case of piano hammers, uprights simply move the hammers closer to the strings to create the pseudo soft playing effect. Is it effective? Not really… for 2 reasons. One is that the touch gets drastically affected. When the hammers move forward, most pianos then have ‘gaps’ in the touch because it has travelled the hammers towards the strings. Problem 2 – there is no ‘fresh felt’ kind of sound like grands have. It doesn’t move the hammers out of the grooves.
Well… just when i thought i’d cover 2 pedals on one post, i’ve run out of both steam and time. Stay tuned for pedalling #3 on the sostenuto pedal… and the 4 variations! It’s a doozer!
Did you know that you can spell the word pedalling with two L’s or one? huh… the things you learn… i learned early on in teaching that you can either practice or practise. ANYWAY… i was on the phone with my sister the other day (piano teacher extraordinaire) and i was telling her about my piano blog… she said “For goodness sakes – do one on pedalling!!!” And so here it is… (shout out to my sister lol).
Just to clear up any misconceptions; the pedals on a piano are not GAS, BRAKE and CLUTCH. They’re also not LOUD, MEDIUM and SOFT(which is usually the 2nd guess). The 3 pedals are 3 S’s: SUSTAIN, SOSTENUTO and SOFT or alternatively: DAMPER, BASS SUSTAIN and UNA CORDA. Either works really. Today, however, we’re just going to look at one pedal – the most used by FAR, which is the right pedal known as the sustain/damper. If you ever see someone playing an electronic piano and they have a cord down to the floor with one pedal, it’s gonna be this one. The percentage of use for sustain vs. the other two is probably around 95% sustain, 4% soft and about 1% sostenuto. So the sustain/damper does it all really. To piano playing i call this pedal the ‘mortar to the bricks’. This pedal practically ‘fills the cracks’ when you play the piano. It is used to connect what your fingers can’t hold on to. So imagine you’re at the piano, you’re playing lots of notes at one time – you then need to almost instantaneously move to another group of notes. Most times you will audibly hear a gap in between those two sets of notes. You can, however give the impression that notes are somehow ‘connected’ by moving quickly from one to the next. Quite a lot of the time though, you just can’t change positions that quickly and thus the need for the sustain pedal. The sustain pedal keeps the strings ‘live’ by sustaining the notes. This is accomplished through the dampers (thus both names for this pedal). When the dampers are not sitting on the strings, they are allowed to resonate freely. So while your fingers are moving to the next notes, the sustained tones from the last chord will continue to resonate until you arrive at the keys. Make sense? Then when you come to the next chord, the damper pedal is released, effectively bridging the gap between the notes. The most difficult part of this pedal is the timing because you need to think ‘bridge’ ALL the time. After a while though it becomes second nature.
I was at a home recently where i was tuning. The lady called me a day later and commented on how her piano didn’t sound that good after i left. I was thinking to myself that i had somehow done an inadequate tuning and promised to stop in. When i sat at the piano, i rattled off an old song i knew by heart and she said “How come it doesn’t sound like that when i play?” lol… it was because she had yet to learn about the damper pedal. I must say that the damper DOES make you sound more professional… but only when executed properly. Give it a try. You’ll like it. Promise.